What is forging process?
Forging is a process of heating and reshaping metal to create a desired piece. This can be done using either a falling ram, or a die press compression to mould the material into shape. Re-aligning the grains of metal when it’s heated and formed makes it strong enough to withstand pressure, making these pieces ideal for industries such as trucks, aerospace and medical equipment, amongst others. Choosing the forging method, however, brings a multitude of unique benefits that no other method can provide. Forging offers the best value in terms of price and quality. This is particularly true when the part strength, size, and performance specifications are critical. Some of the most common methods are listed below:
- Closed die forging
- Open die forging
- Cold forging
- Roll forging
In metal forging, four main tools are used depending on the exact method.
Advantages of forging
- Heavy production is economically feasible
- Tolerances within 0.01-0.02 inches more accurate
- With less draft, dies are more accurate in terms of dimensions.
- Die speed, pressure, and travel are automatically controlled
- It is possible to automate processes
Forging uses hammers, or power hammers, as a tool to repeatedly strike metal, deforming it. The tool can be a hand-held hammer or a massive power hammer. A hammer can pound metal into shape as long as it has a driving force of 50,000 pounds and can deliver high-pressure impact blows.
Forging dies are continuously pressed using mechanical or hydraulic pressures. This type of equipment requires 50,000 tons of driving force to vertically squeeze metal into die cavities. The metal is slowly pressed into the dies instead of being struck repeatedly to deform it.
The main difference between upsetter forging and press forging is that upsetter forging is done horizontally instead of forcing the metal downward into the die impression.
The ring roller is used to produce rings with diameters of a few inches to more than 300 inches. It turns a hollow round piece of metal under extreme pressure against a rotating roll.
As part of emitech forging, the die and metal are heated to the same temperature. In adiabatic heating, there is no net transfer of mass or heat between the system and the external environment. The changes are all caused by internal changes that result in highly controlled strain rates. As a result of the lower heat loss, smaller forging machines can be used.
Cylinder Forging Part